Day 4: ~ています。(2)

~ています can be used to express your habits. In particular, はたらきます (work), べんきょうします (study), おしえます (teach), すみます (live), andします (do) are usually used in the て-form if you talk about what you do now. For example, to say “I work in Tokyo,” we say とうきょうではたらいています。If you say とうきょうではたらきます, it may sound like you are going to work in Tokyo in the future.

Look at the following dialogues.

ティファニー:おとうさんは どこにすんでいますか。
(Where does your father live?)
パーシー:スコットランドにすんでいます。ちちは がかです。
(He lives in Scotland. My father is a painter.)
(What kind of pictures does he paint?)
(He paints landscapes.)

がか means “painter.” かきます (paint, draw) is a group 1 verb. ふうけい means “landscape” and が means “painting.” Therefore, ふうけいが means “landscape painting.”

たに:しゅうまつは なにをしていますか。
(What do you usually do on weekends?)
(I do the cleaning. I like cleaning. How about you, Tani-san?)
たに:わたしは まいしゅうにちようび、えいごをべんきょうしています。
(I study English every Sunday.)
(That’s good.)

そうじ is “cleaning.”


Answer the following questions.

1. どこにすんでいますか。
2. しゅうまつ、なにをしていますか。

Very good!

Day 3: ~ています。/~ていました。(1)

To express what you are doing, you use the present continuous tense. In Japanese, we use the て-form plus います。

Look at the following dialogues.

(What are you doing now?)
(I’m studying. I have a test tomorrow.)
(Good luck!)
(Thanks. I’ll try hard!)

して is the て-form of します (Group 3). べんきょうします consists of べんきょう and します. Therefore, べんきょうします is also a group 3 verb.

(What were you doing yesterday morning?)
(I was writing a report.)
たに:きのうのごごは なにをしていましたか。
(What were you doing yesterday afternoon?)
(I was joining the meeting.)

ていました is the past tense of ています. かいて is the て-form of かきます (Group 1). さんかします consists of さんか and します. Therefore, さんかします is a group 3 verb.


Answer the following questions.

2. きのうのよる、なにをしていましたか。

Very good!

Day 2: て-form (2)

Today, we will study how to make て-forms for verbs in Groups 2 and 3.

If the verb has an え-sound before ます, it is a group 2 verb. For example, たべます (eat) and ねます (sleep) are group 2 verbs. They are easy to recognize.

However, some group 2 verbs have an い-sound before ます. For example, おきます (get up) and みます (look, watch) are group 2 verbs. As you can tell, they look similar to group 1 verbs. So it is necessary to memorize such words. Here is the list of group 2 verbs with い-sounds before ます.

います (stay, exist)
きます (wear) (きます meaning “come” belongs to Group 3)
にます (boil, resemble)
みます (look, watch)

おきます (get up) (おきます meaning “place” belongs to Group 1.)
おります (go down, get off) (おります meaning “fold” belongs to Group 1.)
かります (borrow, rent) (かります meaning “cut” belongs to Group 1.)
できます (can do)

To make て-forms for group 2 verbs, just delete ます and add て. For example, たべます becomes たべて. おきます (get up) becomes おきて (not おいて).

Group 3 consists of only two words: します (do) and きます (come). します becomes して and きます becomes きて.


Change the following verbs into て-forms.

1. はじめます (start)
2. かります (borrow)
3. あつめます (collect)
4. あるきます (walk)
5. みます (look, watch)

1. はじめて
2. かりて
4. あるいて (Group 1)
5. みて

Very good!

Day 1: て-form (1)

In our beginning course, we learned various verbs in the ます-form or the polite form. Today, we will start to learn another form, て-form.
Japanese verbs can be categorized into three groups, Groups 1 to 3. Today, we will learn how to change ます-forms into て-forms for Group 1. Here are the rules.

(1) If the verb has い, ち, or り before ます, its て-form is ~って.

かいます (buy) becomes かって.
まちます (wait) becomes まって.
おくります (send) becomes おくって.

(2) If the verb has び, み, or に before ます, its て-form is ~んで.

あそびます (play) becomes あそんで.
よみます (read) becomes よんで.
しにます (die) becomes しんで.

(3) If the verb has き before ます, its て-form is ~いて.

かきます (write) becomes かいて.
(3-1) However, there is an exception. いきます (go) becomes いって.

(4) If the verb has ぎ before ます, its て-form is ~いで.

いそぎます (hurry) becomes いそいで.

(5)For the other verbs in Group 1, delete ます add て.

はなします (talk) becomes はなして.


Change the following ます-form verbs into て-forms.

1. つくります (make)
2. すみます (live)
3. はたらきます (work)
4. およぎます(swim)
5. けします (erase, turn off)
6. いきます (go)

1. つくって
2. すんで
3. はたらいて
4. およいで
5. けして
6. いって

Very good!